General Studies Paper 2- (250 MARKS)

Governance, Constitution, Polity, Social Justice and International Relations:

  • Indian Constitution: historical underpinnings, evolution, features, amendments, significant provisions and basic structure.
  • Functions and responsibilities of the Union and the States, issues and challenges pertaining to the federal structure, devolution of powers and finances up to local levels and challenges therein.
  • Separation of powers between various organs.

(Reference materials: For Basics: NCERT Class XI – India Constitution at Work, D DBasu: Introduction to the Constitution of India,SubashKashyap: Our Political System, ARC and Punchhi Commission Reports) General Studies Paper 2

  • Dispute redressal mechanisms and institutions.

(Reference Material:2nd ARC 7th report named “ Capacity Building for Conflict  Resolution”)

  • Comparison of the Indian constitutional scheme with that of other countries.

(Reference Material: Select Constitutions of the world by S. Chand) General Studies Paper 2

  • Parliament and State Legislatures- structure, functioning, conduct of business, powers & privileges and issues arising out of these.
  • Structure, organization and functioning of the Executive and the Judiciary: Ministries and Departments of the Government; pressure groups and formal/informal associations and their role in the Polity.

(Reference Material:SubhashKashyp’s Our Parliament,D DBasu: Introduction to the Constitution of India, ARC and Puncchi Commission Reports) General Studies Paper 2

  • Salient features of the Representation of People’s Act.

(Reference Material: The Representation of People’s Act 1951, its recent amendments, ) General Studies Paper 2

  • Appointment to various Constitutional posts, powers, functions and responsibilities of various Constitutional Bodies
  • Statutory, regulatory and various quasi-judicial bodies

(Reference Material: D DBasu: Introduction to the Constitution of India, Laksmikanth -Indian Polity, ARC and Puncchi Commission Reports) General Studies Paper 2

Social Justice

  • Government policies and interventions for development in various sectors and issues arising out of their design and implementation.
  • Development processes and the development industry- the role of NGOs, SHGs, various groups and associations, donors, charities, institutional and other stakeholders.

(Reference Materials: Press Information Bureau Website, Yojana and Kurukshethra Magazines, Hindu News Paper, Economic and Political Weekly) General Studies Paper 2

  • Welfare schemes for vulnerable sections of the population by the Centre and States and the performance of these schemes; mechanisms, laws, institutions and Bodies constituted for the protection and betterment of these vulnerable sections.
  • Issues relating to development and management of Social Sector/Services relating to Health, Education, Human Resources.
  • Issues relating to poverty and hunger.

(Reference Materials: Plan Document(12th Five year Plan), CAG Report on Welfare Schemes, Economic Survey, Ministry Websites, Press Information Bureau Website, Yojna Magazine, Hindu News Paper, Economic and Political Weekly) General Studies Paper 2


  • Important aspects of governance: transparency and accountability, e-governance- applications, models, successes, limitations, and potential; citizens charters, transparency& accountability and institutional and other measures.
  • Role of civil services in a democracy.

(Reference Materials: 2nd ARC Reports, National Conference on E- Governance – Background Papers, Economic and Political Weekly) General Studies Paper 2

International Relations

  • India and its neighborhood relations. Bilateral, regional and global groupings and agreements involving India and/or affecting India’s interests. Effect of policies and politics of developed and developing countries on India’s interests.
  • Indian diaspora
  • Important International institutions, agencies and their structure, mandate.

(Reference Materials: IDSA Website, Ministry of External Affairs Website, The Hindu, FrontLine, Challenge and Strategy by Rajiv Sikhri) General Studies Paper 2