Indian Polity

 Indian Polity

Articles

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PREAMBLE

WE, THE PEOPLE OF INDIA, having solemnly resolved to constitute India into a SOVEREIGN, SOCIALIST, SECULAR, DEMOCRATIC, REPUBLIC and to secure to all its citizens:
JUSTICE, social, economic and political;
LIBERTY of thought, expression, belief, faith and worship;
EQUALITY of status and of opportunity; and to promote among them all
FRATERNITY assuring the dignity of the individual and the unity and integrity of the nation;
IN OUR CONSTITUENT ASSEMBLY this twenty sixth day of November 1949 , do HEREBY ADOPT, ENACT AND GIVE TO OURSELVES THIS CONSTITUTION.

PART I : THE UNION AND ITS TERRITORY

Article  1 Name and territory of the Union.
Article  2 Admission or establishment of new States.
Article  2A [Repealed.]
Article  3 Formation of new States and alteration of areas, boundaries or names of existing States.
Article  4 Laws made under articles 2 and 3 to provide for the amendment of the First and the Fourth Schedules and supplemental, incidental and consequential matters.

PART II: CITIZENSHIP

Article  5 Citizenship at the commencement of the Constitution.
Article  6 Rights of citizenship of certain persons who have migrated to India from Pakistan.
Article  7 Rights of citizenship of certain migrants to Pakistan.
Article  8 Rights of citizenship of certain persons of Indian origin residing outside India.
Article  9 Persons voluntarily acquiring citizenship of a foreign State not to be citizens.
Article  10 Continuance of the rights of citizenship.
Article  11 Parliament to regulate the right of citizenship by law.

PART III : FUNDAMENTAL RIGHTS

General
Article  12 Definition.
Article  13 Laws inconsistent with or in derogation of the fundamental rights.
Right to Equality
Article  14 Equality before law.
Article  15 Prohibition of discrimination on grounds of religion, race, caste, sex or place of birth.
Article  16 Equality of opportunity in matters of public employment.
Article  17 Abolition of Untouchability.
Article  18 Abolition of titles.
Right to Freedom
Article  19 Protection of certain rights regarding freedom of speech, etc.
Article  20 Protection in respect of conviction for offences.
Article  21 Protection of life and personal liberty.
Article  22 Protection against arrest and detention in certain cases.
Right against Exploitation
Article  23 Prohibition of traffic in human beings and forced labour.
Article  24 Prohibition of employment of children in factories, etc.
Right to Freedom of Religion
Article  25 Freedom of conscience and free profession, practice and propagation of religion.
Article  26 Freedom to manage religious affairs.
Article  27 Freedom as to payment of taxes for promotion of any particular religion.
Article  28 Freedom as to attendance at religious instruction or religious worship in certain educational institutions.
Cultural and Educational Rights
Article  29 Protection of interests of minorities.
Article  30 Right of minorities to establish and administer educational institutions.
Article  31 [Repealed.]
Saving of Certain Laws
Article  31A Saving of Laws providing for acquisition of estates, etc.
Article  31B Validation of certain Acts and Regulations.
Article  31C Saving of laws giving effect to certain directive principles.
Article  31D [Repealed.]
Right to Constitutional Remedies
Article  32 Remedies for enforcement of rights conferred by this Part.
Article  32A [Repealed.]
Article  33 Power of Parliament to modify the rights conferred by this Part in their application to Forces, etc.
Article  34 Restriction on rights conferred by this Part while martial law is in force in any area.
Article  35 Legislation to give effect to the provisions of this Part.

PART IV : DIRECTIVE PRINCIPLES OF STATE POLICY

Article  36 Definition.
Article  37 Application of the principles contained in this Part.
Article  38 State to secure a social order for the promotion of welfare of the people.
Article  39 Certain principles of policy to be followed by the State.
Article  39A Equal justice and free legal aid.
Article  40 Organisation of village panchayats.
Article  41 Right to work, to education and to public assistance in certain cases.
Article  42 Provision for just and humane conditions of work and maternity relief.
Article  43 Living wage, etc., for workers.
Article  43A Participation of workers in management of industries.
Article  44 Uniform civil code for the citizens.
Article  45 Provision for free and compulsory education for children.
Article  46 Promotion of educational and economic interests of Scheduled Castes, Scheduled Tribes and other weaker sections.
Article  47 Duty of the State to raise the level of nutrition and the standard of living and to improve public health.
Article  48 Organisation of agriculture and animal husbandry.
Article  48A Protection and improvement of environment and safeguarding of forests and wild life.
Article  49 Protection of monuments and places and objects of national importance.
Article  50 Separation of judiciary from executive.
Article  51 Promotion of international peace and security.

PART IVA : FUNDAMENTAL DUTIES

Article  51A Fundamental duties.

PART V : THE UNION

CHAPTER I : THE EXECUTIVE

The President and Vice-President
Article  52 The President of India.
Article  53 Executive power of the Union.
Article  54 Election of President.
Article  55 Manner of election of President.
Article  56 Term of office of President.
Article  57 Eligibility for re-election.
Article  58 Qualifications for election as President.
Article  59 Conditions of President’s office.
Article  60 Oath or affirmation by the President.
Article  61 Procedure for impeachment of the President.
Article  62 Time of holding election to fill vacancy in the office of President and the term of office of person elected to fill casual vacancy.
Article  63 The Vice-President of India.
Article  64 The Vice-President to be ex officio Chairman of the Council of States.
Article  65 The Vice-President to act as President or to discharge his functions during casual vacancies in the office, or during the absence, of President.
Article  66 Election of Vice-President.
Article  67 Term of office of Vice-President.
Article  68 Time of holding election to fill vacancy in the office of Vice-President and the term of office of person elected to fill casual vacancy.
Article  69 Oath or affirmation by the Vice-President.
Article  70 Discharge of President’s functions in other contingencies.
Article  71 Matters relating to, or connected with, the election of a President or Vice-President.
Article  72 Power of President to grant pardons, etc., and to suspend, remit or commute sentences in certain cases.
Article  73 Extent of executive power of the Union.
Council of Ministers
Article  74 Council of Ministers to aid and advise President.
Article  75 Other provisions as to Ministers.
The Attorney-General for India
Article  76 Attorney-General for India.
Conduct of Government Business
Article  77 Conduct of business of the Government of India.
Article  78 Duties of Prime Minister as respects the furnishing of information to the President, etc.

CHAPTER II : PARLIAMENT

General
Article  79 Constitution of Parliament.
Article  80 Composition of the Council of States.
Article  81 Composition of the House of the People.
Article  82 Readjustment after each census.
Article  83 Duration of Houses of Parliament.
Article  84 Qualification for membership of Parliament.
Article  85 Sessions of Parliament, prorogation and dissolution.
Article  86 Right of President to address and send messages to Houses.
Article  87 Special address by the President.
Article  88 Rights of Ministers and Attorney-General as respects Houses.
Officers of Parliament
Article  89 The Chairman and Deputy Chairman of the Council of States.
Article  90 Vacation and resignation of, and removal from, the office of Deputy Chairman.
Article  91 Power of the Deputy Chairman or other person to perform the duties of the office of, or to act as, Chairman.
Article  92 The Chairman or the Deputy Chairman not to preside while a resolution for his removal from office is under consideration.
Article  93 The Speaker and Deputy Speaker of the House of the People .
Article  94 Vacation and resignation of, and removal from, the offices of Speaker and Deputy Speaker.
Article  95 Power of the Deputy Speaker or other person to perform the duties of the office of, or to act as, Speaker.
Article  96 The Speaker or the Deputy Speaker not to preside while a resolution for his removal from office is under consideration.
Article  97 Salaries and allowances of the Chairman and Deputy Chairman and the Speaker and Deputy Speaker.
Article  98 Secretariat of Parliament.
Conduct of Business
Article  99 Oath or affirmation by members.
Article  100 Voting in Houses, power of Houses to act notwithstanding vacancies and quorum.
Disqualifications of Members
Article  101 Vacation of seats.
Article  102 Disqualifications for membership.
Article  103 Decision on questions as to disqualifications of members.
Article  104 Penalty for sitting and voting before making oath or affirmation under article 99 or when not qualified or when disqualified.
Powers, Privileges and Immunities of Parliament and its Members
Article  105 Powers, privileges, etc., of the Houses of Parliament and of the members and committees thereof.
Article  106 Salaries and allowances of members.
Legislative Procedure
Article  107 Provisions as to introduction and passing of Bills.
Article  108 Joint sitting of both Houses in certain cases.
Article  109 Special procedure in respect of Money Bills.
Article  110 Definition of “Money Bills”.
Article  111 Assent to Bills.
Procedure in Financial Matters
Article  112 Annual financial statement.
Article  113 Procedure in Parliament with respect to estimates.
Article  114 Appropriation Bills.
Article  115 Supplementary, additional or excess grants.
Article  116 Votes on account, votes of credit and exceptional grants.
Article  117 Special provisions as to financial Bills.
Procedure Generally
Article  118 Rules of procedure.
Article  119 Regulation by law of procedure in Parliament in relation to financial business.
Article  120 Language to be used in Parliament.
Article  121 Restriction on discussion in Parliament.
Article  122 Courts not to inquire into proceedings of Parliament.

CHAPTER III : LEGISLATIVE POWERS OF THE PRESIDENT

Article  123 Power of President to promulgate Ordinances during recess of Parliament.

CHAPTER IV : THE UNION JUDICIARY

Article  124 Establishment and constitution of Supreme Court.
Article  125 Salaries, etc., of Judges.
Article  126 Appointment of acting Chief Justice.
Article  127 Appointment of ad hoc judges.
Article  128 Attendance of retired Judges at sittings of the Supreme Court.
Article  129 Supreme Court to be a court of record.
Article  130 Seat of Supreme Court.
Article  131 Original jurisdiction of the Supreme Court.
Article  131A [Repealed.]
Article  132 Appellate jurisdiction of Supreme Court in appeals from High Courts in certain cases.
Article  133 Appellate jurisdiction of Supreme Court in appeals from High Courts in regard to Civil matters.
Article  134 Appellate jurisdiction of Supreme Court in regard to criminal matters.
Article  134A Certificate for appeal to the Supreme Court.
Article  135 Jurisdiction and powers of the Federal Court under existing law to be exercisable by the Supreme Court.
Article  136 Special leave to appeal by the Supreme Court.
Article  137 Review of judgments or orders by the Supreme Court.
Article  138 Enlargement of the jurisdiction of the Supreme Court.
Article  139 Conferment on the Supreme Court of powers to issue certain writs.
Article  139A Transfer of certain cases.
Article  140 Ancillary powers of Supreme Court.
Article  141 Law declared by Supreme Court to be binding on all courts.
Article  142 Enforcement of decrees and orders of Supreme Court and orders as to discovery, etc.
Article  143 Power of President to consult Supreme Court.
Article  144 Civil and judicial authorities to act in aid of the Supreme Court.
Article  144A [Repealed.]
Article  145 Rules of Court, etc.
Article  146 Officers and servants and the expenses of the Supreme Court.
Article  147 Interpretation.

CHAPTER V : COMPTROLLER AND AUDITOR-GENERAL OF INDIA

Article  148 Comptroller and Auditor-General of India.
Article  149 Duties and powers of the Comptroller and Auditor-General.
Article  150 Form of accounts of the Union and of the States.
Article  151 Audit reports.

PART VI : THE STATES

CHAPTER I : GENERAL

Article  152 Definition.

CHAPTER II : THE EXECUTIVE

The Governor
Article  153 Governors of States.
Article  154 Executive power of State.
Article  155 Appointment of Governor.
Article  156 Term of office of Governor.
Article  157 Qualifications for appointment as Governor.
Article  158 Conditions of Governor’s office
Article  159 Oath or affirmation by the Governor.
Article  160 Discharge of the functions of the Governor in certain contingencies.
Article  161 Power of Governor to grant pardons, etc., and to suspend, remit or commute sentences in certain cases.
Article  162 Extent of executive power of State.
Council of Ministers
Article  163 Council of Ministers to aid and advise Governor.
Article  164 Other provisions as to Ministers.
The Advocate-General for the State
Article  165 Advocate-General for the State.
Conduct of Government Business
Article  166 Conduct of business of the Government of a State.
Article  167 Duties of Chief Minister as respects the furnishing of information to Governor, etc.

CHAPTER III : THE STATE LEGISLATURE

General
Article  168 Constitution of Legislatures in States.
Article  169 Abolition or creation of Legislative Councils in States.
Article  170 Composition of the Legislative Assemblies.
Article  171 Composition of the Legislative Councils.
Article  172 Duration of State Legislatures.
Article  173 Qualification for membership of the State Legislature.
Article  174 Sessions of the State Legislature, prorogation and dissolution.
Article  175 Right of Governor to address and send messages to the House or Houses.
Article  176 Special address by the Governor.
Article  177 Rights of Ministers and Advocate-General as respects the Houses.
Officers of the State Legislature
Article  178 The Speaker and Deputy Speaker of the Legislative Assembly.
Article  179 Vacation and resignation of, and removal from, the offices of Speaker and Deputy Speaker.
Article  180 Power of the Deputy Speaker or other person to perform the duties of the office of, or to act as, Speaker.
Article  181 The Speaker or the Deputy Speaker not to preside while a resolution for his removal from office is under consideration.
Article  182 The Chairman and Deputy Chairman of the Legislative Council.
Article  183 Vacation and resignation of, and removal from, the offices of Chairman and Deputy Chairman.
Article  184 Power of the Deputy Chairman or other person to perform the duties of the office of, or to act as, Chairman.
Article  185 The Chairman or the Deputy Chairman not to preside while a resolution for his removal from office is under consideration.
Article  186 Salaries and allowances of the Speaker and Deputy Speaker and the Chairman and Deputy Chairman.
Article  187 Secretariat of State Legislature.
Conduct of Business
Article  188 Oath or affirmation by members.
Article  189 Voting in Houses, power of Houses to act notwithstanding vacancies and quorum.
Disqualifications of Members
Article  190 Vacation of seats.
Article  191 Disqualifications for membership.
Article  192 Decision on questions as to disqualifications of members.
Article  193 Penalty for sitting and voting before making oath or affirmation under article 188 or when not qualified or when disqualified.
Powers, privileges and immunities of State Legislatures and their Members
Article  194 Powers, privileges, etc., of the Houses of Legislatures and of the members and committees thereof.
Article  195 Salaries and allowances of members.
Legislative Procedure
Article  196 Provisions as to introduction and passing of Bills.
Article  197 Restriction on powers of Legislative Council as to Bills other than Money Bills.
Article  198 Special procedure in respect of Money Bills.
Article  199 Definition of “Money Bills”.
Article  200 Assent to Bills.
Article  201 Bills reserved for consideration.
Procedure in Financial Matters
Article  202 Annual financial statement.
Article  203 Procedure in Legislature with respect to estimates.
Article  204 Appropriation Bills.
Article  205 Supplementary, additional or excess grants.
Article  206 Votes on account, votes of credit and exceptional grants.
Article  207 Special provisions as to financial Bills.
Procedure Generally
Article  208 Rules of procedure.
Article  209 Regulation by law of procedure in the Legislature of the State in relation to financial business.
Article  210 Language to be used in the Legislature.
Article  211 Restriction on discussion in the Legislature.
Article  212 Courts not to inquire into proceedings of the Legislature.

CHAPTER IV : LEGISLATIVE POWER OF THE GOVERNOR

Article  213 Power of Governor to promulgate Ordinances during recess of Legislature.

CHAPTER V : THE HIGH COURTS IN THE STATES

Article  214 High Courts for States.
Article  215 High Courts to be courts of record.
Article  216 Constitution of High Courts.
Article  217 Appointment and conditions of the office of a Judge of a High Court.
Article  218 Application of certain provisions relating to Supreme Court to High Courts.
Article  219 Oath or affirmation by Judges of High Courts.
Article  220 Restriction on practice after being a permanent Judge.
Article  221 Salaries, etc., of Judges.
Article  222 Transfer of a Judge from one High Court to another.
Article  223 Appointment of acting Chief Justice.
Article  224 Appointment of additional and acting Judges.
Article  224A Appointment of retired Judges at sittings of High Courts.
Article  225 Jurisdiction of existing High Courts.
Article  226 Power of High Courts to issue certain writs.
Article  226A [Repealed..]
Article  227 Power of superintendence over all courts by the High Court.
Article  228 Transfer of certain cases to High Court.
Article  228A [Repealed.]
Article  229 Officers and servants and the expenses of High Courts.
Article  230 Extension of jurisdiction of High Courts to Union territories.
Article  231 Establishment of a common High Court for two or more States.

CHAPTER VI : SUBORDINATE COURTS

Article  233 Appointment of district judges.
Article  233A Validation of appointments of, and judgments, etc., delivered by, certain district judges.
Article  234 Recruitment of persons other than district judges to the judicial service.
Article  235 Control over subordinate courts.
Article  236 Interpretation.
Article  237 Application of the provisions of this Chapter to certain class or classes of magistrates.

PART VII : THE STATES IN PART B OF THE FIRST SCHEDULE

Article  238 [Repealed.]

PART VIII : THE UNION TERRITORIES

Article  239 Administration of Union territories.
Article  239A Creation of local Legislatures or Council of Ministers or both for certain Union territories.
Article  239A Special provisions with respect to Delhi.
Article  239AA Provision in case of failure of constitutional machinery.
Article  239AB Power of administrator to promulgate Ordinances during recess of Legislature.
Article  240 Power of President to make regulations for certain Union territories.
Article  241 High Courts for Union territories.
Article  242 [Repealed.]

PART IX : THE PANCHAYATS

Article  243 Definitions.
Article  243A Gram Sabha.
Article  243B Constitution of Panchayats.
Article  243C Composition of Panchayats.
Article  243D Reservation of seats.
Article  243E Duration of Panchayats, etc.
Article  243F Disqualifications for membership.
Article  243G Powers, authority and responsibilities of Panchayats.
Article  243H Powers to impose taxes by, and Funds of, the Panchayats.
Article  243-I Constitution of Finance Commission to review financial position.
Article  243J Audit of accounts of Pachayats.
Article  243K Elections to the Panchayats.
Article  243L Application to Union territories.
Article  243M Part not to apply to certain areas.
Article  243N Continuance of existing laws and Panchayats.
Article  243-O Bar to interference by courts in electoral matters.

PART IXA : THE MUNICIPALITIES

Article  243P Definitions.
Article  243Q Constitution of Municipalities.
Article  243R Composition of Municipalities.
Article  243S Constitution and composition of Wards Committees, etc.
Article  243T Reservation of seats.
Article  243U Duration of Municipalities, etc.
Article  243V Disqualifications for membership.
Article  243W Powers, authority and responsibilities of Municipalities, etc.
Article  243X. Power to impose taxes by, and Funds of, the Municipalities.
Article  243Y Finance Commission.
Article  243Z Audit of accounts of Municipalities.
Article  243ZA Elections to the Municipalities.
Article  243ZB Application to Union territories.
Article  243ZC Part not to apply to certain areas.
Article  243ZD Committee for district planning.
Article  243ZE Committee for Metropolitan planning.
Article  243ZF Continuance of existing laws and Municipalities.
Article  243ZG Bar to interference by Courts in electoral matters.

PART X : THE SCHEDULED AND TRIBAL AREAS

Article  244 Administration of Scheduled Areas and Tribal Areas.
Article  244A Formation of an autonomous State comprising certain tribal areas in Assam and creation of local Legislature or Council of Ministers or both therefor.

PART XI : RELATIONS BETWEEN THE UNION AND THE STATES

CHAPTER I : LEGISLATIVE RELATIONS

Distribution of Legislative Powers

Article  245 Extent of laws made by Parliament and by the Legislatures of States.
Article  246 Subject-matter of laws made by Parliament and by the Legislatures of States.
Article  247 Power of Parliament to provide for the establishment of certain additional courts.
Article  248 Residuary powers of legislation.
Article  249 Power of Parliament to legislate with respect to a matter in the State List in the national interest.
Article  250 Power of Parliament to legislate with respect to any matter in the State List if a Proclamation of Emergency is in operation.
Article  251 Inconsistency between laws made by Parliament under articles 249 and 250 and laws made by the Legislatures of States.
Article  252 Power of Parliament to legislate for two or more States by consent and adoption of such legislation by any other State.
Article  253 Legislation for giving effect to international agreements.
Article  254 Inconsistency between laws made by Parliament and laws made by the Legislatures of States.
Article  255 Requirements as to recommendations and previous sanctions to be regarded as matters of procedure only.

CHAPTER II : ADMINISTRATIVE RELATIONS

General

Article  256 Obligation of States and the Union.
Article  257 Control of the Union over States in certain cases.
Article  257A [Repealed.]
Article  258 Power of the Union to confer powers, etc., on States in certain cases.
Article  258A Power of the States to entrust functions to the Union.
Article  259 [Repealed.]
Article  260 Jurisdiction of the Union in relation to territories outside India.
Article  261 Public acts, records and judicial proceedings.
Disputes relating to Waters
Article  262 Adjudication of disputes relating to waters of inter-State rivers or river valleys.
Co-ordination between States
Article  263 Provisions with respect to an inter-State Council.

PART XII : FINANCE, PROPERTY, CONTRACTS AND SUITS

CHAPTER I : FINANCE

General
Article  264 Interpretation.
Article  265 Taxes not to be imposed save by authority of law.
Article  266 Consolidated Funds and public accounts of India and of the States.
Article  267 Contingency Fund.
Distribution of Revenues between the Union and the States
Article  268 Duties levied by the Union but collected and appropriated by the State.
Article  269 Taxes levied and collected by the Union but assigned to the States.
Article  270 Taxes levied and distributed between the Union and the States.
Article  271 Surcharge on certain duties and taxes for purposes of the Union.
Article  272 [Repealed.]
Article  273 Grants in lieu of export duty on jute and jute products.
Article  274 Prior recommendation of President required to Bills affecting taxation in which States are interested.
Article  275 Grants from the Union to certain States.
Article  276 Taxes on professions, trades, callings and employments.
Article  277 Savings.
Article  278 [Repealed.]
Article  279 Calculation of “net proceeds”, etc.
Article  280 Finance Commission.
Article  281 Recommendations of the Finance Commission.
Miscellaneous financial provisions
Article  282 Expenditure defrayable by the Union or a State out of its revenues.
Article  283 Custody, etc., of Consolidated Funds, Contingency Funds and moneys credited to the public accounts.
Article  284 Custody of suitors’ deposits and other moneys received by public servants and courts.
Article  285 Exemption of property of the Union from State taxation.
Article  286 Restrictions as to imposition of tax on the sale or purchase of goods.
Article  287 Exemption from taxes on electricity.
Article  288 Exemption from taxation by States in respect of water or electricity in certain cases.
Article  289 Exemption of property and income of a State from Union taxation.
Article  290 Adjustment in respect of certain expenses and pensions.
Article  290A Annual payment to certain Devaswom Funds.
Article  291 [Repealed.]

CHAPTER II : BORROWING

Article  292 Borrowing by the Government of India.
Article  293 Borrowing by States.

CHAPTER III : PROPERTY, CONTRACTS, RIGHTS, LIABILITIES, OBLIGATIONS AND SUITS

Article  294 Succession to property, assets, rights, liabilities and obligations in certain cases.
Article  295 Succession to property, assets, rights, liabilities and obligations in other cases.
Article  296 Property accruing by escheat or laps or as bona vacantia.
Article  297 Things of value within territorial waters or continental shelf and resources of the exclusive economic zone to vest in the Union.
Article  298 Power to carry on trade, etc.
Article  299 Contracts.
Article  300 Suits and proceedings.

CHAPTER IV : RIGHT TO PROPERTY

Article  300A Persons not to be deprived of property save by authority of law.

PART XIII : TRADE, COMMERCE AND INTERCOURSE WITHIN THE TERRITORY OF INDIA

Article  301 Freedom of trade, commerce and intercourse.
Article  302 Power of Parliament to impose restrictions on trade, commerce and intercourse.
Article  303 Restrictions on the legislative powers of the Union and of the States with regard to trade and commerce.
Article  304 Restrictions on trade, commerce and intercourse among States.
Article  305 Saving of existing laws and laws providing for State monopolies.
Article  306 [Repealed.]
Article  307 Appointment of authority for carrying out the purposes of articles 301 to 304.

PART XIV : SERVICES UNDER THE UNION AND THE STATES

CHAPTER I : SERVICES

Article  308 Interpretation.
Article  309 Recruitment and conditions of service of persons serving the Union or a State.
Article  310 Tenure of office of persons serving the Union or a State.
Article  311 Dismissal, removal or reduction in rank of persons employed in civil capacities under the Union or a State.
Article  312 All-India services.
Article  312A Power of Parliament to vary or revoke conditions of service of officers of certain services.
Article  313 Transitional provisions.
Article  314 [Repeated.]

CHAPTER II : PUBLIC SERVICE COMMISSIONS

Article  315 Public Service Commissions for the Union and for the States.
Article  316 Appointment and term of office of members.
Article  317 Removal and suspension of a member of a Public Service Commission.
Article  318 Power to make regulations as to conditions of service of members and staff of the Commission.
Article  319 Prohibition as to the holding of offices by members of Commission on ceasing to be such members.
Article  320 Functions of Public Service Commissions.
Article  321 Power to extend functions of Public Service Commissions.
Article  322 Expenses of Public Service Commissions.
Article  323 Reports of Public Service Commissions.

PART XIVA : TRIBUNALS

Article  323A Administrative tribunals.
Article  323B Tribunals for other matters.

PART XV : ELECTIONS

Article  324 Superintendence, direction and control of elections to be vested in an Election Commission.
Article  325 No person to be ineligible for inclusion in, or to claim to be included in a special, electoral roll on grounds of religion, race, caste or sex.
Article  326 Elections to the House of the People and to the Legislative Assemblies of States to be on the basis of adult suffrage.
Article  327 Power of Parliament to make provision with respect to elections to Legislatures.
Article  328 Power of Legislature of a State to make provision with respect to elections to such Legislature.
Article  329 Bar to interference by courts in electoral matters.
Article  329A [Repealed.]

PART XVI : SPECIAL PROVISIONS RELATING TO CERTAIN CLASSES

Article  330 Reservation of seats for Scheduled Castes and Scheduled Tribes in the House of the People.
Article  331 Representation of the Anglo-Indian community in the House of the People.
Article  332 Reservation of seats for Scheduled Castes and Scheduled Tribes in the Legislative Assemblies of the States.
Article  333 Representation of the Anglo-Indian community in the Legislative Assemblies of the States.
Article  334 Reservation of seats and special representation to cease after sixty years.
Article  335 Claims of Scheduled Castes and Scheduled Tribes to services and posts.
Article  336 Special provision for Anglo-Indian community in certain services.
Article  337 Special provision with respect to educational grants for the benefit of Anglo-Indian Community.
Article  338 National Commission for Scheduled Castes.
Article  338A National Commission for Scheduled Tribes.
Article  339 Control of the Union over the Administration of Scheduled Areas and the welfare of Scheduled Tribes.
Article  340 Appointment of a Commission to investigate the conditions of backward classes.
Article  341 Scheduled Castes.
Article  342 Scheduled Tribes.

PART XVII : OFFICIAL LANGUAGE

CHAPTER I : LANGUAGE OF THE UNION

Article  343 Official language of the Union.
Article  344 Commission and Committee of Parliament on official language.

CHAPTER II : REGIONAL LANGUAGES

Article  345 Official language or languages of a State.
Article  346 Official language for communication between one State and another or between a State and the Union.
Article  347 Special provision relating to language spoken by a section of the population of a State.

CHAPTER III : LANGUAGE OF THE SUPREME COURT, HIGH COURTS, ETC.

Article  348 Language to be used in the Supreme Court and in the High Courts and for Acts, Bills, etc.
Article  349 Special procedure for enactment of certain laws relating to language.

CHAPTER IV : SPECIAL DIRECTIVES

Article  350 Language to be used in representations for redress of grievances.
Article  350A Facilities for instruction in mother-tongue at primary stage.
Article  350B Special Officer for linguistic minorities.
Article  351 Directive for development of the Hindi language.

PART XVIII : EMERGENCY PROVISIONS

Article  352 Proclamation of Emergency.
Article  353 Effect of Proclamation of Emergency.
Article  354 Application of provisions relating to distribution of revenues while a Proclamation of Emergency is in operation.
Article  355 Duty of the Union to protect States against external aggression and internal disturbance.
Article  356 Provisions in case of failure of constitutional machinery in States.
Article  357 Exercise of legislative powers under Proclamation issued under article 356.
Article  358 Suspension of provisions of article 19 during emergencies.
Article  359 Suspension of the enforcement of the rights conferred by Part III during emergencies.
Article  359A [Repealed.]
Article  360 Provisions as to financial emergency.

PART XIX : MISCELLANEOUS

Article  361 Protection of President and Governors and Rajprakukhs.
Article  361A Protection of publication of proceedings of Parliament and State Legislatures.
Article  361B Disqualification for appointment on remunerative political post.
Article  362 [Repealed.]
Article  363 Bar to interference by courts in disputes arising out of certain treaties, agreements, etc.
Article  363A Recognition granted to Rulers of Indian States to cease and privy purses to be abolished.
Article  364 Special provisions as to major ports and aerodromes.
Article  365 Effect of failure to comply with, or to give effect to, directions given by the Union.
Article  366 Definitions.
Article  367 Interpretation.

PART XX : AMENDMENT OF THE CONSTITUTION

Article  368 Power of Parliament to amend the Constitution and procedure therefor.

PART XXI : TEMPORARY, TRANSITIONAL AND SPECIAL PROVISIONS

Article  369 Temporary power to Parliament to make laws with respect to certain matters in the State List as if they were matters in the Concurrent List.
Article  370 Temporary provisions with respect to the State of Jammu and Kashmir.
Article  371 Special provision with respect to the States of Maharashtra and Gujarat.
Article  371A Special provision with respect to the State of Nagaland.
Article  371B Special provision with respect to the State of Assam.
Article  371C Special provision with respect to the State of Manipur.
Article  371D Special provisions with respect to the State of Andhra Pradesh.
Article  371E Establishment of Central University in Andhra Pradesh.
Article  371F Special provisions with respect to the State of Sikkim.
Article  371G Special provision with respect to the State of Mizoram.
Article  371H Special provision with respect to the State of Arunachal Pradesh.
Article  371-I Special provision with respect to the State of Goa.
Article  372 Continuance in force of existing laws and their adaptation.
Article  372A Power of the President to adapt laws.
Article  373 Power of President to make order in respect of persons under preventive detention in certain cases.
Article  374 Provisions as to Judges of the Federal Court and proceedings pending in the Federal Court or before His Majesty in Council.
Article  375 Courts, authorities and officers to continue to function subject to the provisions of the Constitution.
Article  376 Provisions as to Judges of High Courts.
Article  377 Provisions as to Comptroller and Auditor-General of India.
Article  378 Provisions as to Public Service Commissions.
Article  378A Special provision as to duration of Andhra Pradesh Legislative Assembly.
Article  379-391 [Repealed.]
Article  392 Power of the President to remove difficulties.

PART XXII : SHORT TITLE, COMMENCEMENT, AUTHORITATIVE TEXT IN HINDI AND REPEALS

Article  393 Short title.
Article  394 Commencement.
Article  394A Authoritative text in the Hindi language.
Article  395 Repeals.

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