Indian Polity


Indian Polity

Indian Constitution: historical underpinnings, evolution, features, amendments, significant provisions and basic structure.

  • Functions and responsibilities of the Union and the States, issues and challenges pertaining to the federal structure, devolution of powers and finances up to local levels and challenges therein.
  • Separation of powers between various organs.

(Reference materials: For Basics: NCERT Class XI – India Constitution at Work, D DBasu: Introduction to the Constitution of India,SubashKashyap: Our Political System, ARC and Punchhi Commission Reports)

  • Dispute redressal mechanisms and institutions.

(Reference Material:2nd ARC 7th report named “ Capacity Building for Conflict  Resolution”)

  • Comparison of the Indian constitutional scheme with that of other countries.

(Reference Material: Select Constitutions of the world by S. Chand)

  • Parliament and State Legislatures- structure, functioning, conduct of business, powers & privileges and issues arising out of these.
  • Structure, organization and functioning of the Executive and the Judiciary: Ministries and Departments of the Government; pressure groups and formal/informal associations and their role in the Polity.

(Reference Material:SubhashKashyp’s Our Parliament,D DBasu: Introduction to the Constitution of India, ARC and Puncchi Commission Reports)

  • Salient features of the Representation of People’s Act.

(Reference Material: The Representation of People’s Act 1951, its recent amendments, )

  • Appointment to various Constitutional posts, powers, functions and responsibilities of various Constitutional Bodies
  • Statutory, regulatory and various quasi-judicial bodies

(Reference Material: D DBasu: Introduction to the Constitution of India, Laksmikanth -Indian Polity, ARC and Puncchi Commission Reports)

Indian Constitution – Article wise


Part I: Constitutional Framework

1.Historical Background
2.Making of the constitution
3.Salient features of the Indian Constitution
4.Preamble to the Constitution
5.Union and its territory
7.Fundamental rights
8.Directive principles of state policy
9.Fundamental duties
10.Amendment of the constitution
11.Basic structure of the constitution.

Part II: System of Government

12.Parliamentary system
13.Federal System
14.Centre-state relations
15.Inter-state relations.
16.Emergency provisions

Part III:Central government

19.Prime Minister
20.Central Council of Ministers
21.Cabinet committees
23.Parliamentary committees
24.Parliamentary forums
25.Supreme Court

Part IV:State Government

27.Chief Minister
28.State Council of Ministers
29.State legislature
30.High court
31.Subordinate Courts
32.Special status of Jammu and Kashmir
33.Special provision for some states

Part V:Local Government

34.Panchayati raj

Part VI:Union territories and special areas

36.Union territories
37.Scheduled and tribal areas

Part VII: Constitutional Bodies

38.Election commission
39.Union Public service commission
40.State Public service Commission
41.Finance Commission
42.National Commission for SC’s
43. National Commission for ST’s
44.Special officer for Linguistic minorities
45.Comptroller and auditor general of India
46.Attorney General of India.
47.Advocate General of India.

Part VIII:Non-Constitutional Bodies

48.Planing Commission
49.National Development Council
50.National Human Rights Commission
51.State Human Rights Commission
52.Central Information Commission
53.State Information Commission
54.Central vigilance Commission
55.Central Bureau of Investigation
56.Lokpal and Lokayuktas

Part IX:Other Constitutional Dimensions

57.Co-operative societies
58.Official Language
59.Public services
61.Rights and Liabilities of the Government.
62.Authoritative text of the Constitution in Hindi Language.
63.Special Provision relating to certain classes.

Part X:Political Dynamics

64.Political Parties
66.Electoral Reforms
67.Anti-Defection Law
68.Pressure groups
69.National Integration
70.Foreign Policy

Part XI:Working of the Constitution

71.National Commission to review the working of the constitution.

Indian Constitution – Capsule PDF

Acts and Bills 


1. National Waterways Act, 2016.

2. Ordinance to amend Enemy Property Act

3. Amendments made to Public Safety Act

4. Real Estate act

5. Social Boycott Act

6. The Child Labour (Prohibition and Regulation) Amendment Act, 2016


1. The Aadhaar (Targeted Delivery of Financial and Other Subsidies, Benefits and Services) Bill, 2016

2. Draft National Medical Commission Bill, 2016

3. Admiralty (Jurisdiction and Settlement of Maritime Claims) Bill 2016

4. Arbitration and Conciliation (Amendment) Bill, 2015

5. Crackdown on Benami properties

6. The Bureau of Indian Standards Bill 2015

7. Citizenship Amendment Bill, 2016

8. Consumer Protection Bill, 2015

9. Electricity Amendment bill 2014

10. The Enemy Property (Amendment and Validation) Fourth Ordinance, 2016

11. The Environment Laws Bill, 2015

12. Financial Resolution and Deposit Insurance Bill

13. Draft Geo-Spatial Information Regulation Bill, 2016

14. Institutes of Technology Amendment Bill, 2016

15. International Child Abduction Bill, 2016

16. Draft Bill of ‘Major Port Authorities Act, 2016

17. Medical Treatment of Terminally-Ill Patients Bill, 2016

18. Model Shops and Establishment (Regulation of Employment and Conditions of Service) Bill, 2016.

19. The Motor Vehicles (Amendment) Bill, 2016

20. Draft National Water Framework Bill

21. The Prevention of Corruption (Amendment) Bill, 2013 and proposed 2015 amendments

22. Trafficking of Persons (Prevention, Protection and Rehabilitation) Bill

23. The Enforcement of Security Interest and Recovery of Debts Laws and Miscellaneous Provisions (Amendment) Bill, 2016

24. Industrial Relations Bill, 2015