What is meant by test tube babies?

The technique of in-vitro fertilisation (IVF) and in-vitro development followed by the embryo-transfer in the uterus of the normal female to start the development and finally leading to normal birth is called test tube baby creation.

Methodology involves the following steps:

— Removal of unfertilised ovum from reproductive tract of a female.

— Ovum is kept under asceptic conditions.

— Fusion of sperm and ovum in a culture medium, outside the female body to form the zygote.

— ygote is stimulated to develop in vitro upto 32-celled stage.

— Developing embryo is implanted on the endometrium of the uterus at 32-celled stage. So the pregnancy in the woman starts and further the development of the child continues in the womb till it is born.

The IVF technology is a boon to childless couples. First attempt to produce a test tube baby was made by an Italian scientist Dr. Petrucci (1959 A.D.)

But this human embryo survived for only 29 days. The first test tube baby was born to Lesley and Gilbert Brown on July 26, 1978 in Oldham, England. Mrs. Brown had obstructed fallopian tubes. Dr. Patrick Steptoe and Dr. Robert Edwards, both from England, experimented on Mrs. Brown successfully.

The world’s first test tube baby (a baby girl) was named as Louise Joy Brown. India’s first test tube baby was born in Calcutta on October 3rd, 1978. Her name is Durga.

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